The history of Turkey is as ancient as the history of the world. The land where modern Turkey is located today was titled with many names in the past. This includes Anatolia and Asia Minor in different periods of time.
Turkey, throughout its long rich history has witnessed the rising and the end of many different dynasties and civilizations including the Hittites, the Persians, the Lydians, the Greeks, the Romans, the Byzantines, and at last the Ottomans before the establishment of the modern nation of Turkey we know today.
Most of the establishments of these empires were centered around Istanbul. This is why some Istanbul tours allow the guests to spend some days to explore the most important city in Turkey nowadays.
Each of these great dynasties has left its touch in Turkey to form a marvelous combination of architecture and human heritage. Turkey is nowadays visited by a large number of travelers who come from all over the world for tours in Turkey.
Many ancient civilization have risen in the fertile valleys of Turkey before the famous empires like the Persians, the Romans, and the Ottomans started recognizing the importance of the country and make use of its resources.
Afterwards, a large number of immigrants have settled in Turkey coming from different regions of the world and founding new communities that have left many signs of its greatness and civilizations. Touristic destinations which welcome many several people coming for holidays in Istanbul and other locations weren't established at the time
Turkey in ancient times
It was proved through scientific research and planned excavation work that Turkey was inhabited as early as 20,000 BC. Some tools made out of stone, artifacts, animal bones, and fossils that were unearthed near the northern section of Antalya have discovered that Turkey had some communities living on its lands since the Old Stone Age.
Most of the people who used to live in these ancient primitive communities have were nomadic hunters and the changing climate conditions forced them to leave one land and immigrate to the other from time to time according to the recourses available for them in each region. The families belonging to these tribes used to follow the animals on which they depend for clothing, food, tools, and many other substances. This was why they never settled in one area and they were moving around constantly according to the conditions of life.
The first real permanently settled communities in the region were these tribes who stayed in Mesopotamia in the Prehistoric period. The fertile land that was located between Tigris and Euphrates rivers have attracted many groups of people to settle in this area, located in Syria and Iraq nowadays, to make use of the cultivations they can do there.
Afterwards, and around 10,000 BC, a number of tribes settled in Anatolia depending on the crops of wheat and barley they used to cultivate in these lands. Anatolia has become a popular destination nowadays for many Turkey vacation packages.
This early example of primitive community settlement made the best use of animals as they kept sheep, goats, and cattle to benefit from their meat, milk, and furs. They even used some trained dogs to protect their lands and houses.
These tribes were the first people who took the risk of living in an established community that is based only one region; the fertile crescent of the time, the shores of the Red and Mediterranean Seas, and near the Persian Gulf.
The archeological exploration of these areas proved that some villages were founded in 8000 BC and after one thousand years around 7000 BC many civilizations and communities were well established in the region. The inhabitants of these tribes were able to discover, in the same period, the use of metal objects and how they can produce useful tools like weapons and knives through extracting the iron from the ground.
Scholars have proved the presence of the earliest items that were produced out of copper in 5000 BC in Anatolia, the city that has become a part of many Turkey private tours in our modern times. ;
The first town in history
The first real city that was ever established in Turkey and maybe the whole entire world was probably named "Catalhoyuk" and it was located in Anatolia. The population of the city was mentioned in historical resources to be around five thousand inhabitants, being the largest settled community at this ancient time.
Most of the people of this ancient Turkish town used to work in agriculture and grazing around the fertile lands. On the other hand, some people have worked in producing the different primitive tools of the time that were sometimes decorated by volcanic glass they used to bring from volcanoes nearby. Most of the houses of the city were built as strong structures to remain for the longest period of time using bricks and some woodwork.
Due to the culture of the inhabitants living in Catalhoyuk at the time, their houses were divided into living chambers, cooking rooms, and some store places as well reflecting some primitive civilized concepts. Many travelers who love to spend their vacations in Turkey, like to read about the civilizations of these ancient primitive communities
The most important creature in the lives of the inhabitants of Anatolia at the time was the cattle. Scholar and researchers have gathered this fact due to the discoveries of some of the walls of the houses of the city. Most of these walls were decorated with paintings displaying cows and other types of cattle and sheep.
Believing in animistic concepts that state that all objects in we see in our lives have some sort of soul inside them, even rocks and different other solid items, some murals that were discovered in Anatolia must have referred to some religious practices and rituals that were carried out in the city.
From the period starting from 5000 BC and until 3500 BC, most of the communities living in Anatolia have depended mainly on farming as the only major source of life. More agriculture meant that more tools have to be produced or even invented to facilitate the work of the farmers.
This was why the father had to teach his son the methods of unearthing different substances and melting them to produce several tools and gadgets. The Copper Age, as this period is titled, of course had a great significance because during the period humans were able to discover copper and its usage.
Some communities at this period were able even to invent more advanced tools and methods to add pottery to the substances they used to produce their tools. Many potteries were produced at the time to be used as dishes, cleaning plates, and many other things. The clay vessels at the time used to be ornamented with colorful decorations proving that the communities of the time knew the use of colors which they extracted from different substances.
According to the growing needs for new tools and inventions, the inhabitants of Anatolia, during the period starting 3000 BC, have created new methods of tools productions. Around 1700 BC, these communities were able to make products like jewelry, leather belts, vessels to drink in, many rock statues, and a collection of several other items. Some of these items are on display in museums included in many Turkey trips
Due to their strong animistic beliefs that remand as a vital influential factor of the communities at the time, the inhabitants of Anatolia produced many statues of gods and goddesses that they used to resort to when they have a problem or when they are facing a natural disaster.
A few numbers of these statues were unearthed after long extensive excavation work and they are displayed in now in museums in Turkey together along many other findings that were discovered dating back to the Copper, Bronze, and prehistoric periods. These museums are being explored with many travelers coming on escorted tours in Turkey. The best idea to understand and explore the ancient history of the region is to go on a private tour to Turkey. Most of the travelers going on one of the private Turkey tours are escorted with well educated tour guides that offer amazing interpretation of the ancient historic events.